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 Andrew Reynolds 

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Andrew Reynolds received his B.A.(Hons) from the University of East Anglia, a M.A. (Dist.) from the University of Cape Town and his Ph.D. from the University of California, San Diego.


His research and teaching focus on democratization, constitutional design and electoral politics. He is particularly interested in the presence and impact of minorities and marginalized communities. He has worked for the United Nations, the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), the UK Department for International Development, the US State Department, the National Democratic Institute, the International Republican Institute, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the International Foundation for Election Systems. He has also served as a consultant on issues of electoral and constitutional design for Afghanistan, Angola, Burma, Egypt, Fiji, Guyana, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Pakistan, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. He has received research awards from the U.S. Institute of Peace, the National Science Foundation, the US Agency for International Development, and the Ford Foundation.

Among his books are: The Arab Spring: Pathways of Repression and Reform (Oxford, 2015) with Jason Brownlee and Tarek Masoud, Designing Democracy in a Dangerous World (Oxford, 2011), The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy (Oxford, 2002), Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa (Oxford, 1999), Election 99 South Africa: From Mandela to Mbeki (St. Martin’s, 1999), Election 94 South Africa: The Campaigns, Results and Future Prospects (David Philip, 1994), Elections and Conflict Management in Africa (USIP, 1998), co-edited with T. Sisk, and The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design (IDEA, 1997, 2nd. 1997, 3rd. 2005) wth Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis.

The Children of Harvey Milk: How LGBTQ Politicians Changed the World (Oxford, 2018) has been lauded as a groundbreaking study of the impact of out queer elected officials. Reynolds is a Senior Research Scholar in the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. In 2017 he was shortlisted to be the United Nations Independent Expert on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity at the UN Human Rights Council, Geneva.

His articles have appeared in journals including the American Political Science Review, Journal of Politics, World Politics, Democratization, Political Behavior, Politics and Society, Middle East Law and Governance, Electoral Studies, Journal of Democracy, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, and Political Science Quarterly. He has published opinion pieces in the New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, Christian Science Monitor, and San Diego Union Tribune. His work has been translated into French, Spanish, Arabic, Serbo-Croat, Albanian, Burmese, Bahasa, Nepali, Thai, Tamil, and Portuguese.

Selected Recent Publications

"HBO's New Show Explores HIV in the 80s. 40 Years Later Stigma and Prejudice are Still Going Strong"  (with Gabriele Magni) Washington Post, February 19, 2021. 


“The Persistence of Prejudice: Voters Strongly Penalize candidates with HIV" (with Gabriele Magni) Political Behavior, 2021.


“Voter Preferences and the Political Underrepresentation of Minority Groups: Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Candidates in Advanced Democracies,” (with Gabriele Magni) Journal of Politics, forthcoming.

"Number of LGB MPs in Britain hits record high thanks to a new wave of young queer politiciansPink NewsDecember 31, 2020.

"Had LGBT voters stayed home, Trump might have won the 2020 presidential election," Washington Post, December 1, 2020. 

"11 openly LGBTQ lawmakers will take their seats in the next Congress. That’s a record in both numbers and diversity." Washington Post, November 30, 2020.


"Openly LGBTQ Candidates are Running in Record Numbers - Again," Washington Post, October 2020.

"The Empathy of Black Voters," (with Gabriele Magni) The New Republic, July 17, 2020.

"Calling Trump ‘Morbidly Obese’ Taps into Voters Antipathy toward Overweight Candidates," (with Gabriele Magni) Washington Post, May 2020.


Does Sexual Orientation Still Matter? The impact of LGBT candidate identity and visibility on vote share in the UK elections of 2015,” (with Gabriele Magni) American Political Science Review, Vol.12, No.3 (August 2018).

The Children of Harvey Milk: How LGBTQ Politicians Changed the World (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018), 354pp. (Paperback May 2020).

Curriculum Vitae - March 2021


School of Public and International Affairs

Princeton University

Robertson Hall, 20 Prospect Ave, Princeton, NJ 08540

Work in Progress

“Presidential Candidate Mayor Pete Buttigieg: Identity salience and popular support,”


“How Do Voters React to Candidates with Disabilities and Identified Health Conditions?” under review


“Voter Preferences and the Political Underrepresentation of Minority Groups: Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Candidates in Advanced Democracies,” (with Gabriele Magni) Journal of Politics, forthcoming 2021.


“Candidate Sexual Orientation Didn't Matter (in the Way You Might Think) in the 2015 UK General Election,” (with Gabriele Magni) American Political Science Review, Vol.12, No.3 (August 2018).


“From Dynamic Events to Deep Causes: Outcomes and Explanations of the Arab Spring,” (with Jason Brownlee and Tarek Masoud) Middle East Law and Governance, Vol.6, No.3 (Winter 2015).


“Why the Modest Harvest?” (with Jason Brownlee and Tarek Masoud) Journal of Democracy, Vol.24, No.3, (October 2013) pp.29-44.


“Political Scientists as Electoral System Engineers,” (with John Carey, Simon Hix, Mala Htun, Shaheen Mozaffar, and G. Bingham Powell) Perspectives on Politics, Vol.11 No.3 (September 2013) pp.827-840.


 “Representation and Rights: The Impact of LGBT Legislators in Comparative Perspective,” American Political Science Review, Vol.107, No.2 (May 2013) pp.259-274.


“Getting Elections Wrong,” (with John M. Carey) Journal of Democracy, Vol.23, No.1, (January 2012) pp.164-168.


“Comparing the Arab Revolts: The Impact of Election Systems” (with John M. Carey) Journal of Democracy, Vol.22, No.4, (October 2011) pp.36-47.


“Electoral Democratization in Nepal,” Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol.40, No.3 (August 2010) pp.509-519.


“Elections, Electoral Systems, and Conflict in Africa,” The Brown Journal of World Affairs (Fall/Winter 2009).


“Parties and Accountable Government in New Democracies,” (with John M. Carey) Party Politics Vol.13, No.2 (March 2007) pp.255-274.


“Constitutional Design: Promoting Multi Ethnic Democracy,” Harvard International Review, (Winter 2007) pp.42-47.


“How the World Votes: The Political Consequences of Ballot Design, Innovation and Manipulation,” (with Marco Steenbergen) Electoral Studies, Vol.25, No.3 (September 2006), 570-598.


“The Curious Case of Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy, Vol.17, No.2 (April 2006), pp.104-117.


“Reserved Seats in National Legislatures,” Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol XXV, No.3. (May 2005)


“A Framework for the Systematic Study of Election Quality,”(with Jørgen Elklit) Democratization, Vol.12 No.2 (March 2005)

“Judging Elections and Election Quality Management Process,” (with Jørgen Elklit) Representation, Vol.41, No.3 (Autumn 2005), pp.189-207) and in Revisiting Free and Fair Elections. ed. Michael Boda. (Geneva, Inter Parliamentary Union, 2005). Translated into French in 2006.

“Constitutional Medicine” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 16, No. 1 (January 2005), pp.54-68 and in Democracy: A Reader. ed. Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner. (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, 2009).


“The Impact of Election Administration on the Legitimacy of Emerging Democracies,” (with Jørgen Elklit) Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, Vol.40, No.2 (July 2002), pp.86-119.


“How Burma Could Democratize,” (with Alfred Stepan, Zaw Oo and Stephen Levine) Journal of Democracy, Vol. 12, No. 3 (October 2001), pp.95-108.


“Analyzing the Impact of Election Administration on Democratic Politics,” (with Jørgen Elklit) Representation, Vol.38, No.2 (Spring 2001), pp. 3-10.


“The Northern Irish Good Friday Agreement: A Pied Piper to a United Ireland?” Political Science Quarterly, Vol.114, No.4 (January 2000), pp.613-638.


“Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling,” World Politics, Vol.51, No.4 (July 1999), pp.547-572.


Debate: PR in Southern Africa -- The Case for Proportionality,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, No. 4 (October 1995), pp.117-124, and (updated) in Elections and Conflict Management in Africa (Washington DC, US Institute of Peace Press, 1998).


“Power-Sharing Democracy in the New South Africa” (with Thomas Koelble), Politics and Society, Vol.24, No.3 (September 1996), pp.221-236.


“Modeling the Drop-off Between Minority Population Share and the Size of the Minority Electorate in Situations of Differential Voter Eligibility Across Groups” (with Bernard Grofman), Electoral Studies, Vol.15, No.2 (May 1996), pp.255-261.


Constitutional Engineering in Southern Africa,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, No. 2 (April 1995), pp. 86-99.


“The Consequences of South Africa’s PR Electoral System,” Representation, Vol. 32, No. 119 (Autumn 1994), pp. 57-60.

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